Analyzing Neural Time Series Data

Theory and Practice

This book offers a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of analyzing electrical brain signals. It explains the conceptual, mathematical, and implementational (via Matlab programming) aspects of time-, time-frequency- and synchronization-based analyses of magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG), and local field potential (LFP) recordings from humans and nonhuman animals. It is the only book on the topic that covers both the theoretical background and the implementation in language that can be understood by readers without extensive formal training in mathematics, including cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, and psychologists.

Readers who go through the book chapter by chapter and implement the examples in Matlab will develop an understanding of why and how analyses are performed, how to interpret results, what the methodological issues are, and how to perform single-subject-level and group-level analyses. Researchers who are familiar with using automated programs to perform advanced analyses will learn what happens when they click the “analyze now” button.

The book provides sample data and downloadable Matlab code. Each of the 38 chapters covers one analysis topic, and these topics progress from simple to advanced. Most chapters conclude with exercises that further develop the material covered in the chapter. Many of the methods presented (including convolution, the Fourier transform, and Euler's formula) are fundamental and form the groundwork for other advanced data analysis methods. Readers who master the methods in the book will be well prepared to learn other approaches.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. Acknowledgments
  3. I. Introduction
  4. 1. The Purpose of This Book, Who Should Read It, and How to Use It
  5. 2. Advantages and Limitations of Time- and Time-Frequency-Domain Analyses
  6. 3. Interpreting and Asking Questions about Time-Frequency Results
  7. 4. Introduction to Matlab Programming
  8. 5. Introduction to the Physiological Bases of EEG
  9. 6. Practicalities of EEG Measurement and Experiment Design
  10. II. Preprocessing and Time-Domain Analyses
  11. 7. Preprocessing Steps Necessary and Useful for Advanced Data Analysis
  12. 8. EEG Artifacts: Their Detection, Influence, and Removal
  13. 9. Overview of Time-Domain EEG Analyses
  14. III. Frequency and Time-Frequency Domains Analyses
  15. 10. The Dot Product and Convolution
  16. 11. The Discrete Time Fourier Transform, the FFT, and the Convolution Theorem
  17. 12. Morlet Wavelets and Wavelet Convolution
  18. 13. Complex Morlet Wavelets and Extracting Power and Phase
  19. 14. Bandpass Filtering and the Hilbert Transform
  20. 15. Short-Time FFT
  21. 16. Multitapers
  22. 17. Less Commonly Used Time-Frequency Decomposition Methods
  23. 18. Time-Frequency Power and Baseline Normalizations
  24. 19. Intertrial Phase Clustering
  25. 20. Differences among Total, Phase-Locked, and Non-Phase-Locked Power and Intertrial Phase Consistency
  26. 21. Differences among Total, Phase-Locked, and Non-Phase-Locked Power and Intertrial Phase Consistency
  27. IV. Spatial Filters
  28. 22. Surface Laplacian
  29. 23. Principal Components Analyses
  30. 24. Basics of Single-Dipole and Distributed-Source Imaging
  31. V. Connectivity
  32. 25. Introduction to the Various Connectivity Analyses
  33. 26. Phase-Based Connectivity
  34. 27. Power-Based Connectivity
  35. 28. Granger Prediction
  36. 29. Mutual Information
  37. 30. Cross-Frequency Coupling
  38. 31. Graph Theory
  39. VI. Statistical Analyses
  40. 32. Advantages and Limitations of Different Statistical Procedures
  41. 33. Nonparametric Permutation Testing
  42. 34. Within-Subject Statistical Analyses
  43. 35. Group-Level Analyses
  44. 36. Recommendations for Reporting Results in Figures, Tables, and Text
  45. VII. Conclusions and Future Directions
  46. 37. Recurring Themes in This Book and Some Personal Advice
  47. 38. The Future of Cognitive Electrophysiology
  48. References
  49. Index
  50. Color Plates