Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness


Consciousness is at the very core of the human condition. Yet only in recent decades has it become a major focus in the brain and behavioral sciences. Scientists now know that consciousness involves many levels of brain functioning, from brainstem to cortex. The almost seventy articles in this book reflect the breadth and depth of this burgeoning field. The many topics covered include consciousness in vision and inner speech, immediate memory and attention, waking, dreaming, coma, the effects of brain damage, fringe consciousness, hypnosis, and dissociation.

Underlying all the selections are the questions, What difference does consciousness make? What are its properties? What role does it play in the nervous system? How do conscious brain functions differ from unconscious ones? The focus of the book is on scientific evidence and theory. The editors have also chosen introductory articles by leading scientists to allow a wide variety of new readers to gain insight into the field.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. Sources
  3. 1. Introduction: Treating Consciousness as a Variable: The Fading Taboo

    Bernard J. Baars

  4. I. Overview
  5. 2. Consciousness: Respectable, Useful, and Probably Necessary

    George Mandler

  6. 3. Consciousness and Neuroscience

    Francis Crick and Christof Koch

  7. II. Consciousness in Vision
  8. 4. Feature Binding, Attention and Object Perception

    Anne Treisman

  9. 5. Effects of Sleep and Arousal on the Processing of Visual Information in the Cat

    Margaret S. Livingstone and David H. Hubel

  10. 6. The Role of Temporal Cortical Areas in Perceptual Organization

    D. L. Sheinberg and N. K. Logothetis

  11. 7. Investigating Neural Correlates of Conscious Perception by Frequency-Tagged Neuromagnetic Responses

    Guilio Tononi, Ramesh Srinivasan, D. Patrick Russell, and Gerald M. Edelman

  12. 8. Temporal Binding, Binocular Rivalry, and Consciousness

    Andreas K. Engel, Pascal Fries, Pieter R. Roelfsema, Peter König, Michael Brecht, and Wolf Singer

  13. 9. Disconnected Awareness for Detecting, Processing, and Remembering in Neurological Patients

    L. Weiskrantz

  14. 10. Blindsight in Monkeys

    Alan Cowey and Petra Stoerig

  15. 11. Hemisphere Deconnection and Unity in Conscious Awareness

    R. W. Sperry

  16. 12. Separate Visual Pathways for Perception and Action

    M. A. Goodale and A. D. Milner

  17. 13. Consciousness and Isomorphism: Can the Color Spectrum Really Be Inverted?

    Stephen E. Palmer

  18. III. Attention: Selecting One Conscious Stream among Many
  19. 14. Strategies and Models of Selective Attention

    Anne M. Treisman

  20. 15. Inattentional Blindess versus Inattentional Amnesia for Fixated but Ignored Words

    Geraint Rees, Charlotte Russell, Christopher D. Frith, and Jon Driver

  21. 16. Aspects of a Theory of Comprehension, Memory, and Attention

    Donald G. MacKay

  22. 17. To See or Not to See: The Need for Attention to Perceive Changes in Scenes

    Ronald A. Rensink, J. Kevin O'Regan, and James J. Clark

  23. 18. Function of the Thalamic Recticular Complex: The Searchlight Hypothesis

    Francis Crick

  24. 19. Selective Attention Gates Visual Processing in the Extrastriate Cortex

    Jeffrey Moran and Robert Desimone

  25. 20. Attention: The Mechanisms of Consciousness

    Michael I. Posner

  26. 21. Attention, Awareness, and the Triangular Circuit

    David LaBerge

  27. IV. Immediate Memory: The Fleeting Conscious Present
  28. 22. The Information Available in Brief Visual Presentations

    George Sperling

  29. 23. The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information

    George A. Miller

  30. 24. The Control of Short-Term Memory

    Richard C. Atkinson and Richard M. Shiffrin

  31. 25. Verbal and Visual Subsystems of Working Memory

    Alan D. Baddeley

  32. 26. The Prefrontal Landscape: Implications of Functional Architecture for Understanding Human Mentation and the Central Excecutive

    P. S. Goldman-Rakic

  33. 27. Storage and Executive Processes in the Frontal Lobes

    Edward E. Smith and John Jonides

  34. 28. Consciousness and Cognition May Be Mediated by Multiple Independent Coherent Ensembles

    E. Roy John, Paul Easton, and Robert Isenhart

  35. V. Internal Sources: Visual Images and Inner Speech
  36. 29. Aspects of a Cognitive Neuroscience of Mental Imagery

    S. M. Kosslyn

  37. 30. The Neural Basis of Mental Imagery

    Martha J. Farah

  38. 31. Experimental Studies of Ongoing Conscious Experience

    Jerome L. Singer

  39. 32. Verbal Reports on Thinking

    K. Anders Ericcson and Herbert A. Simon

  40. VI. Below the Threshold of Sensory Consciousness
  41. 33. Distinguishing Conscious from Unconscious Perceptual Processes

    Jim Cheesman and Philip M. Merikle

  42. 34. The Psychological Unconscious: A Necessary Assumption for All Psychological Theory?

    Howard Shevrin and Scott Dickman

  43. 35. Brain Stimulation in the Study of Neuronal Functions for Conscious Sensory Experiences

    B. Libet

  44. VII. Consciousness and Memory
  45. 36. Memory and Consciousness

    Endel Tulving

  46. 37. Conscious Recollection and the Human Hippocampal Formation: Evidence from Positron Emission Tomography

    Daniel L. Schachter, Nathaniel M. Alpert, Cary R. Savage, Scott L. Rauch, and Marilyn S. Albert

  47. 38. Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge

    Arthur S. Reber

  48. 39. Attention, Automatism, and Consciousness

    Richard M. Shiffrin

  49. 40. When Practice Makes Imperfect: Debilitating Effects of Overlearning

    Ellen J. Langer and Lois G. Imber

  50. 41. The Neural Correlates of Consciousness: An Analysis of Cognitive Skill Learning

    Marcus E. Raichle

  51. 42. Availability: A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability

    Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman

  52. 43. Experiences of Remembering, Knowing, and Guessing

    John M. Gardiner, Cristina Ramponi, and Alan Richardson-Klavehn

  53. 44. Measuring Recollection: Strategic versus Automatic Influences of Associative Context

    Larry L. Jacoby

  54. VIII. Unconcious and "Fringe" Processes
  55. 45. The Conscious "Fringe": Bringing William James up to Date

    Bruce Mangan

  56. 46. The Fundamental Role of Context: Unconscious Shaping of Conscious Information

    Bernard J. Baars

  57. 47. The Cognitive Unconscious

    John F. Kihlstrom

  58. 48. Pain and Dissociation in the Cold Pressor Test: A Study of Hypnotic Analgesia with "Hidden Reports" through Automatic Key Pressing and Automatic Talking

    Ernest R. Hilgard, Arlene H. Morgan, and Hugh Macdonald

  59. 49. Anosognosia in Parietal Lobe Syndrome

    V. S. Ramachandran

  60. 50. Implications for Psychiatry of Left and Right Cerebral Specialization: A Neurophysiological Context for Unconscious Processes

    David Galin

  61. IX. Conciousness as a State: Waking, Deep Sleep, Coma, Anesthesia, and Dreaming
  62. 51. Brain Stem Reticular Formation and Activation of the EEG

    G. Moruzzi and H. W. Magoun

  63. 52. Anatomical and Physiological Substrates of Arousal

    Arnold B. Scheibel

  64. 53. On the Neurophysiology of Consciousness: An Overview

    Joseph E. Bogen

  65. 54. An Information Processing Theory of Anaesthesia

    H. Flohr

  66. 55. Toward a Unified Theory of Narcosis: Brain Imaging Evidence for a Thalamocortical Switch as the Neurophysiologic Basis of Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness

    M. T. Alkire, R. J. Haier, and J. H. Fallon

  67. 56. The Relation of Eye Movements during Sleep to Dream Activity: An Objective Method for the Study of Dreaming

    William Dement and Nathaniel Kleitman

  68. 57. The Brain as a Dream State Generator: An Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis of the Dream Process

    J. Allan Hobson and Robert W. McCarley

  69. 58. Lucid Dreaming Verified by Volitional Communication during REM Sleep

    Stephen P. LaBerge, Lynn E. Nagel, William C. Dement, and Vincent P. Zarcone, Jr.

  70. 59. Commentary: Of Dreaming and Wakefulness

    R. R. Llinás and D. Paré

  71. X. Theory
  72. 60. Consciousness and Complexity

    Giulio Tononi and Gerald M. Edelman

  73. 61. Brain Learning, Attention, and Consciousness

    Stephen Grossberg

  74. 62. A Global Competitive Network for Attention

    J. G. Taylor and F. N. Alavi

  75. 63. Time-Locked Multiregional Retroactivation: A Systems-Level Proposal for the Neural Substrates of Recall and Recognition

    Antonio R. Damasio

  76. 64. Visual Feature Integration and the Temporal Correlation Hypothesis

    Wolf Singer and Charles M. Gray

  77. 65. Metaphors of Consciousness and Attention in the Brain

    Bernard J. Baars

  78. 66. How Does a Serial, Integrated, and Very Limited Stream of Consciousness Emerge from a Nervous System That Is Mostly Unconscious, Distributed, Parallel, and of Enormous Capacity?

    Bernard J. Baars

  79. 67. A Neural Global Workspace Model for Conscious Attention

    James Newman, Bernard J. Baars, and Sung-Bae Cho

  80. 68. A Software Agent Model of Consciousness

    Stan Franklin and Art Graesser

  81. Index