Eye, Retina, and Visual System of the Mouse

Overview

Recent years have seen a burst of studies on the mouse eye and visual system, fueled in large part by the relatively recent ability to produce mice with precisely defined changes in gene sequence. Mouse models have contributed to a wide range of scientific breakthroughs for a number of ocular and neurological diseases and have allowed researchers to address fundamental issues that were difficult to approach with other experimental models. This comprehensive guide to current research captures the first wave of studies in the field, with fifty-nine chapters by leading scholars that demonstrate the usefulness of mouse models as a bridge between experimental and clinical research. The opening chapters introduce the mouse as a species and research model, discussing such topics as the mouse's evolutionary history and the mammalian visual system. Subsequent sections explore more specialized subjects, considering optics, psychophysics, and the visual behaviors of mice; the organization of the adult mouse eye and central visual system; the development of the mouse eye (including comparisons to human development); the development and plasticity of retinal projections and visuotopic maps; mouse models for human eye disease (including glaucoma and cataracts); and the application of advanced genomic technologies (including gene therapy and genetic knockouts) to the mouse visual system. Readers of this unique reference will see that the study of mouse models has already demonstrated real translational prowess in vision research.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. 1. Evolutionary History of the Genus Mus
  3. 2. Visual and Other Sensory Abilities of Mice and Their Influence on Behavioral Measures of Cognitive Function
  4. 3. Comparative Survey of the Mammalian Visual System with Reference to the Mouse
  5. 4. Survey of the Research Opportunities Afforded by Genetic Variation in the Mouse Visual System
  6. 5. The Mouse as a Model for Myopia, and Optics of Its Eye
  7. 6. Characteristics and Applications of Mouse Eye Movements
  8. 7. Measuring Vision in the Awake Behaving Mouse
  9. 8. Electroretinographic Correlates of Normal and Abnormal Retinal Ganglion Cell Activity
  10. 9. Aqueous Humor Dynamics and Trabecular Meshwork
  11. 10. Recent Advances in the Investigation of Mouse Cone Photoreceptors
  12. 11. Mosaic Architecture of the Mouse Retina
  13. 12. Synaptic Organization of the Mouse Retina
  14. 13. Distribution and Functional Roles of Neuronal Gap Junctions in the Mouse Retina
  15. 14. Neurotransmission in the Mouse Retina
  16. 15. Morphological, Functional, and Developmental Properties of Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells
  17. 16. The Lamina Cribrosa Region and Optic Nerve of the Mouse
  18. 17. Photoentrainment of the Circadian Oscillator
  19. 18. Physiology of the Mouse Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
  20. 19. Superior Colliculus and Saccade Generation in Mice
  21. 20. Interconnections of Visual Cortical Areas in the Mouse
  22. 21. Chronology of Development of the Mouse Visual System: Comparisons with Human Development
  23. 22. Developmental Studies of the Mouse Lens: Past, Present, and Future
  24. 23. Development of the Retinal Vasculature and the Effects of High Oxygen (Retinopathy of Prematurity)
  25. 24. Specification, Histogenesis, and Photoreceptor Development in the Mouse Retina
  26. 25. Rb and the Control of Retinal Development
  27. 26. Gene Regulatory Networks and Retinal Ganglion Cell Development
  28. 27. Cell Death in the Mouse Retina
  29. 28. The Function of the Retina prior to Vision: The Phenomenon of Retinal Waves and Retinotopic Refinement
  30. 29. ON and OFF Pathways in the Mouse Retina and the Role of Stimulation
  31. 30. Retinoic Acid Function in Central Visual Pathways
  32. 31. Intraretinal Axon Guidance
  33. 32. Early Development of the Optic Stalk, Chiasm, and Astrocytes
  34. 33. Axon Growth and Regeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells
  35. 34. Development of the Retinogeniculate Pathway
  36. 35. Developmental Synaptic Remodeling: Insights from the Mouse Retinogeniculate Synapse
  37. 36. Ocular Dominance Plasticity
  38. 37. Environmental Enrichment and Visual System Plasticity
  39. 38. Bidirectional Experience-Dependent Plasticity in Primary Visual Cortex
  40. 39. Mouse Models: A Key System in Revolutionizing the Understanding of Glaucoma
  41. 40. Cataract Genetics
  42. 41. Mouse Models of Infectious Eye Diseases
  43. 42. Mouse Models of Autoimmune and Immune-Mediated Uveitis
  44. 43. Mouse Models of Norrie Disease
  45. 44. The Lipofuscin of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Learning from Mouse Models of Retinal Disease
  46. 45. Studies of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Mice
  47. 46. Roles of Oxygen in the Stability of Photoreceptors: Evidence from Mouse and Other Models of Human Disease
  48. 47. Complex Genetics of Photoreceptor Light Damage
  49. 48. Age-Related Eye Diseases
  50. 49. New Genetic Technologies for Studying the Morphology, Physiology, and Development of Mouse Retinal Neurons
  51. 50. Adenoassociated Virus Gene Therapy in Mouse Models of Retinal Degeneration
  52. 51. Delivery of Plasmids into the Visual System Using Electroporation
  53. 52. Genetic Knockouts in Ophthalmic Research and Drug Discovery
  54. 53. Beyond Positional Cloning of Single Gene Mutations: Use of Mouse Models to Examine Allelic Variance and to Identify Genetic Modifiers
  55. 54. The Mouse Eye Transcriptome: Cellular Signatures, Molecular Networks, and Candidate Genes for Human Disease
  56. 55. Mouse Models, Microarrays, and Genetic Networks in Retinal Development and Degenerative Disease
  57. 56. Retinal Vascular and Retinal Pigment Epithelium Gene Expression
  58. 57. Gene Expression in Cornea and Lens
  59. 58. Proteomics of the Mouse Lens
  60. 59. Genetic and Proteomic Analyses of the Mouse Visual Cycle
  61. Contributors
  62. Index
  63. Color Inserts