Foundational Issues in Human Brain Mapping


The field of neuroimaging has reached a watershed. Brain imaging research has been the source of many advances in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science over the last decade, but recent critiques and emerging trends are raising foundational issues of methodology, measurement, and theory. Indeed, concerns over interpretation of brain maps have created serious controversies in social neuroscience, and, more important, point to a larger set of issues that lie at the heart of the entire brain mapping enterprise. In this volume, leading scholars—neuroimagers and philosophers of mind—reexamine these central issues and explore current controversies that have arisen in cognitive science, cognitive neuroscience, computer science, and signal processing.

The contributors address both statistical and dynamical analysis and modeling of neuroimaging data and interpretation, discussing localization, modularity, and neuroimagers' tacit assumptions about how these two phenomena are related; controversies over correlation of fMRI data and social attributions (recently characterized for good or ill as "voodoo correlations"); and the standard inferential design approach in neuroimaging. Finally, the contributors take a more philosophical perspective, considering the nature of measurement in brain imaging, and offer a framework for novel neuroimaging data structures (effective and functional connectivity—"graphs").

Contributors: William Bechtel, Bharat Biswal, Matthew Brett, Martin Bunzl, Max Coltheart, Karl J. Friston, Joy J. Geng, Clark Glymour, Kalanit Grill-Spector, Stephen José Hanson, Trevor Harley, Gilbert Harman, James V. Haxby, Rik N. Henson, Nancy Kanwisher, Colin Klein, Richard Loosemore, Sébastien Meriaux, Chris Mole, Jeanette A. Mumford, Russell A. Poldrack, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Richard C. Richardson, Alexis Roche, Adina L. Roskies, Pia Rotshtein, Rebecca Saxe, Philipp Sterzer, Bertrand Thirion, Edward Vul

A Bradford Book

Table of Contents

  1. Acknowledgments
  2. Introduction
  3. Location and Representation
  4. 1. A Critique of Functional Localizers

    Karl J. Friston, Pia Rotshtein, Joy J. Geng, Philipp Sterzer, and Rik N. Henson

  5. 2. Divide and Conquer: A Defense of Functional Localizers

    Rebecca Saxe, Matthew Brett, and Nancy Kanwisher

  6. 3. Commentary on Divide and Conquer: A Defense of Functional Localizers

    Karl J. Friston and Rik N. Henson

  7. 4. An Exchange about Localism

    Martin Bunzl, Stephen Jose Hanson, and Russell A. Poldrack

  8. 5. Multivariate Pattern Analysis of fMRI Data: High-Dimensional Spaces for Neural and Cognitive Representations

    James V. Haxby

  9. Inference and New Data Structures
  10. 6. Begging the Question: The Nonindependence Error in fMRI Data Analysis

    Edward Vul and Nancy Kanwisher

  11. 7. On the Proper Role of Nonindependent ROI Analysis: A Commentary on Vul and Kanwisher

    Russell A. Poldrack and Jeanette A. Mumford

  12. 8. On the Advantages of Not Having to Rely on Multiple Comparison Corrections

    Edward Vul and Nancy Kanwisher

  13. 9. Confirmation, Refutation, and the Evidence of fMRI

    Christopher Mole and Colin Klein

  14. 10. Words and Pictures in Reports of fMRI Research

    Gilbert Harman

  15. 11. Discovering How Brains Do Things

    Stephen Jose Hanson and Clark Glymour

  16. Design and the Signal
  17. 12. Resting-State Brain Connectivity

    Bharat Biswall

  18. 13. Subtraction and Beyond: The Logic of Experimental Designs for Neuroimaging

    Russell A. Poldrack

  19. 14. Advancements in fMRI Methods: What Can They Inform about the Functional Organization of the Human Ventral Stream?

    Kalanit Grill-Spector

  20. 15. Intersubject Variability in fMRI Data: Causes, Consequences, and Related Analysis Strategies

    Jean-Baptiste Poline, Bertrand Thirion, Alexis Roche, and Sebastien Meriaux

  21. The Underdetermination of Theory by Data
  22. 16. Neuroimaging and Inferential Distance: The Perils of Pictures

    Adina L. Roskies

  23. 17. Brains and Minds: On the Usefulness of Localization Data to Cognitive Psychology

    Richard Loosemore and Trevor Harley

  24. 18. Neuroimaging as a Tool for Functionally Decomposing Cognitive Processes

    William Bechtel and Richard C. Richardson

  25. 19. What Is Functional Neuroimaging For?

    Max Coltheart

  26. References
  27. Contributors
  28. Index
  29. Insert