Microcircuits

The Interface between Neurons and Global Brain Function
Overview

Microcircuits, functional modules that act as elementary processing units bridging single cells to systems and behavior, could provide the link between neurons and global brain function. Microcircuits are designed to serve particular functions; examples of these functional modules include the cortical columns in sensory cortici, glomeruli in the olfactory systems of insects and vertebrates, and networks generating different aspects of motor behavior. In this Dahlem Workshop volume, leading neuroscientists discuss how microcircuits work to bridge the single cell and systems levels and compare the intrinsic function of microcircuits with their ion channel subtypes, connectivity, and receptors, in order to understand the design principles and function of the microcircuits.

The chapters cover the four major areas of microcircuit research: motor systems, including locomotion, respiration, and the saccadic eye movements; the striatum, the largest input station of the basal ganglia; olfactory systems and the neural organization of the glomeruli; and the neocortex. Each chapter is followed by a group report, a collaborative discussion among senior scientists.

Contributors: Lidia Alonso-Nanclares, Hagai Bergman, Maria Blatow, J. Paul Bolam, Ansgar Büschges, Antonio Caputi, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Javier DeFelipe, Carsten Duch, Paul Feinstein, Stuart Firestein, Yves Frégnac, Rainer W. Friedrich, C. Giovanni Galizia, Ann M. Graybiel, Charles A. Greer, Sten Grillner, Tadashi Isa, Ole Kiehn, Minoru Kimura, Anders Lanser, Gilles Laurent, Pierre-Marie Lledo, Wolfgang Maass, Henry Markram, David A. McCormick, Christoph M. Michel, Peter Mombaerts, Hannah Monyer, Hans-Joachim Pflüger, Dietmar Plenz, Diethelm W. Richter, Silke Sachse, H. Sebastian Seung, Keith T. Sillar, Jeffrey C. Smith, David L. Sparks, D. James Surmeier, E?rs Szathmáry, James M. Tepper, Jeff R. Wickens, Rafael Yuste

Table of Contents

  1. Dahlem Workshops
  2. List of Participants
  3. 1. Introduction

    S. Grillner and A. M. Graybiel

  4. 2. Microcircuit of the Superior Colliculus: A Neuronal Machine that Determines Timing and Endpoint of Saccadic Eye Movements

    T. Isa and D. L. Sparks

  5. 3. Locomotor Microcircuits: A Vertebrate Perspective

    K. T. Sillar and S. Grillner

  6. 4. Neuromodulation of Microcircuits in Motor Systems with Special Reference to Invertebrates

    H. J. Pflger and A. Bschges

  7. 5. Group Report: Microcircuits in the Motor System

    O. Kiehn, Rapporteur A. Bschges, C. Duch, S. Grillner, T. Isa, A. Lansner, H. J. Pflger, D. W. Richter, K. T. Sillar, J. C. Smith, and D. L. Sparks

  8. 6. Microcircuits in the Striatum: Cell Types, Intrinsic Membrane Properties, and Neuromodulation

    D. J. Surmeier

  9. 7. Microcircuits in the Striatum: Striatal Cell Types and Their Interaction

    J. M. Tepper and D. Plenz

  10. 8. Modulation of Striatal Circuits by Dopamine and Acetylcholine

    H. Bergman, M. Kimura, and J. R. Wickens

  11. 9. Group Report: Microcircuits, Molecules, and Motivated Behavior -- Microcircuits in the Striatum

    J. P. Bolam, Rapporteur H. Bergman, A. M. Graybiel, M. Kimura, D. Plenz, H. S. Seung, D. J. Surmeier, and J. R. Wickens

  12. 10. Olfactory Microcircuits: Dynamics and Computation beyond the Receptor Neurons

    G. Laurent

  13. 11. Neuronal Replacement in Adult Olfactory Bulb Microcircuits

    P. M. Lledo

  14. 12. Axonal Wiring through Odorant Receptors

    P. Mombaerts and P. Feinstein

  15. 13. Topography and Dynamics of the Olfactory System

    S. Sachse and C. G. Galizia

  16. 14. Group Report: Olfactory Microcircuits

    R. W. Friedrich, Rapporteur S. Firestein, C. G. Galizia, C. A. Greer, G. Laurent, P. M. Lledo, P. Mombaerts, and S. Sachse

  17. 15. Anatomical and Molecular Heterogeneity of Cortical GABAergic Interneurons

    J. DeFelipe, L. Alonso-Nanclares, M. Blatow, A. Caputi, and H. Monyer

  18. 16. UP States and Cortical Dynamics

    D. A. McCormick and R. Yuste

  19. 17. Mechanisms of Neural Integration at the Brain-scale Level: The Neuronal Workspace and Microstate Models

    J. P. Changeux and C. M. Michel

  20. 18. Theory of the Computational Function of Microcircuit Dynamics

    W. Maass and H. Markram

  21. 19. Group Report: Neocortical Microcircuits -- UPs and DOWNs in Cortical Computation

    M. Blatow, J.-P. Changeux, J. DeFelipe, A. Lansner, W. Maass, D. A. McCormick, C. M. Michel, H. Monyer, E. Szathmry, and R. Yuste

  22. Author Index
  23. Name Index
  24. Subject Index