ISBN: 9780262320610 | 336 pp. | October 2014

Ostension

Word Learning and the Embodied Mind
Overview

Ostension is bodily movement that manifests our engagement with things, whether we wish it to or not. Gestures, glances, facial expressions: all betray our interest in something. Ostension enables our first word learning, providing infants with a prelinguistic way to grasp the meaning of words. Ostension is philosophically puzzling; it cuts across domains seemingly unbridgeable—public–private, inner–outer, mind–body. In this book, Chad Engelland offers a philosophical investigation of ostension and its role in word learning by infants.  
    
Engelland discusses ostension (distinguishing it from ostensive definition) in contemporary philosophy, examining accounts by Quine, Davidson, and Gadamer, and he explores relevant empirical findings in psychology, evolutionary anthropology, and neuroscience. He offers original studies of four representative historical thinkers whose work enriches the understanding of ostension: Wittgenstein, Merleau-Ponty, Augustine, and Aristotle. And, building on these philosophical and empirical foundations, Engelland offers a meticulous analysis of the philosophical issues raised by ostension. He examines the phenomenological problem of whether embodied intentions are manifest or inferred; the problem of what concept of mind allows ostensive cues to be intersubjectively available; the epistemological problem of how ostensive cues, notoriously ambiguous, can be correctly understood; and the metaphysical problem of the ultimate status of the key terms in his argument: animate movement, language, and mind. Finally, he argues for the centrality of manifestation in philosophy. Taking ostension seriously, he proposes, has far-reaching implications for thinking about language and the practice of philosophy.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. Acknowledgments
  3. Introduction: Minding Ostension
  4. 1. The Philosophy of Action, Perception, and Play
  5. 2. The Science of Prelinguistic Joint Attention
  6. 3. Wittgenstein: Ostension Makes Language Public
  7. 4. Merleau-Ponty: Gestural Meaning and the Living Body
  8. 5. Augustine: Word Learning by Understanding the Movements of Life
  9. 6. Aristotle: Natural Movement and the Problem of Shared Understanding
  10. 7. Phenomenology: Discovering Ostension
  11. 8. Mind: The Logic of Ostension
  12. 9. Epistemology: Disambiguating Ostension
  13. 10. Metaphysics: Movement, Manifestation, and Language
  14. 11. Conclusion: The Origin of the Human Conversation
  15. Notes
  16. References
  17. Index