Protocol Analysis, Revised Edition

Verbal Reports as Data

Since the publication of Ericsson and Simon's ground-breaking work in the early 1980s, verbal data has been used increasingly to study cognitive processes in many areas of psychology, and concurrent and retrospective verbal reports are now generally accepted as important sources of data on subjects' cognitive processes in specific tasks. In this revised edition of the book that first put protocol analysis on firm theoretical ground, the authors review major advances in verbal reports over the past decade, including new evidence on how giving verbal reports affects subjects' cognitive processes, and on the validity and completeness of such reports.

In a substantial new preface Ericsson and Simon summarize the central issues covered in the book and provide an updated version of their information-processing model, which explains verbalization and verbal reports. They describe new studies on the effects of verbalization, interpreting the results of these studies and showing how their theory can be extended to account for them. Next, they address the issue of completeness of verbally reported information, reviewing the new evidence in three particularly active task domains. They conclude by citing recent contributions to the techniques for encoding protocols, raising general issues, and proposing directions for future research.

All references and indexes have been updated.

Table of Contents

  1. Foreword
  2. Preface to the Revised Edition
  3. 1. Introduction and Summary
  4. 2. Effects of Verbalization
  5. 3. Completeness of Reports
  6. 4. Interferences from Verbal Data
  7. 5. Model of Verbalization
  8. 6. Methods for Protocol Analysis
  9. 7. Techniques of Protocol Analysis Examples
  10. Appendix
  11. Bibliography
  12. Author Index
  13. Subject Index