Psychologists in Word and Image

Overview

We are all fascinated by physiognomy, intrigued by the appearance of the people we admire. These perceptual portraits of more than 100 thinkers who have fashioned our understanding of mind and behavior provide an alternative view of the history of psychology that is both pleasing and puzzling.

Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Pierre Broca, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Ruth Benedict, Allen Newell, David Marr and scores of others whose ideas have made psychology an empirical discipline emerge from motifs specifically drawn by the author or derived from a figure or text in one of the portrayed person's books, or an apparatus he or she invented. The ingenious treatment of portrait/motifs often challenges the viewer to discern the faces embedded in them and always tells us more than how these students of mind looked: these portraits reflect their thoughts and lead us to forage further into their lives and legacies.

The portraits and motifs have been manipulated in a variety of ways, using graphic and photographic procedures. They are arranged in order of birth date in a format of one page of descriptive text facing a full-page perceptual portrait. The text presents a brief synopsis of the person portrayed, that person's ideas, and the source of both the portrait and the motif. Interrelations between people are stressed, bringing to light common threads that run through the work of particular groups and adding yet another level to this unique gallery of psychology's pioneers.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. Introduction
  3. 1. Francis Bacon: Inductive Scientist
  4. 2. Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan
  5. 3. René Descartes: Cartesian Dualism
  6. 4. John Locke: Tabula Rasa
  7. 5. Isaac Newton: Visionary
  8. 6. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz: Monadologist
  9. 7. George Berkeley: The Perception of Distance
  10. 8. Thomas Reid: Common Senses
  11. 9. David Hume: Humean Understanding
  12. 10. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Noble Savage
  13. 11. Immanuel Kant: Apperception
  14. 12. Franz Anton Mesmer: Animal Magnetism
  15. 13. Philippe Pinel: Emancipator
  16. 14. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Romantic Eye
  17. 15. Franz Joseph Gall: Phrenological Head of Gall
  18. 16. Thomas Young: Optometer
  19. 17. Charles Bell: The Nerves of Bell's Head
  20. 18. David Brewster: Philosophical Toys
  21. 19. Jan Evangelista Purkinje: Sehen in Subjektiver Hinsicht
  22. 20. Arthur Schopenhauer: Irrational Man
  23. 21. Marie Jan Pierre Flourens: Extirpator
  24. 22. Ernst Heinrich Weber: Weber Fractions
  25. 23. Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet: L'Homme Moyen
  26. 24. Isadore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte: Positivist
  27. 25. Gustav Theodor Fechner: Psychometric Function
  28. 26. Johannes Peter Müller: Vieth-Müller Circle
  29. 27. Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau: Plateau Spiral
  30. 28. Charles Wheatstone: Stereoscopist
  31. 29. Charles Robert Darwin: The Expression of Darwin's Emotions
  32. 30. Claude Bernard: Milieu Int�rieur
  33. 31. Frans Cornelis Donders: Donders' See
  34. 32. Alexander Bain: Mind Reader
  35. 33. Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz: Young Helmholtz
  36. 34. Francis Galton: Face Recognition
  37. 35. Pierre Paul Broca: Broca's Area
  38. 36. Jean Martin Charcot: L'Arc de Cercle
  39. 37. Hermann Rudolf Aubert: Physiologist of the Retina
  40. 38. Joseph Rémi Leopold Delbouef: Delboeuf Illusion
  41. 39. James Clerk Maxwell: Colour Mixer
  42. 40. Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt: The Institution of Psychology
  43. 41. Karl Ewald Konstantin Hering: Hering Grid
  44. 42. Ernst Mach: Mach Bands
  45. 43. Franz Brentano: Act Psychologist
  46. 44. William James: Pragmatist
  47. 45. Josef Breuer: Anna-lyst
  48. 46. David Ferrier: Brain Stimulator
  49. 47. Granville Stanley Hall: The Adolescence of Psychology
  50. 48. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov: Pavlov's Dog
  51. 49. Hermann Ebbinghaus: Memory Man
  52. 50. Conwy Lloyd Morgan: Lloyd Morgan's Canon
  53. 51. Emil Kraepelin: Nosologist
  54. 52. Sigmund Freud: Ichonoclast
  55. 53. Franz Carl Müller-Lyer: Illusionist
  56. 54. Karl Pearson: Pearson's
  57. 55. Alfred Binet: Intelligence Tester
  58. 56. Pierre Marie Felix Janet: Psychopathologist
  59. 57. Hugo Münsterberg: Displaced Chessboard Figure
  60. 58. Mary Whiton Calkins: Paired-associate
  61. 59. Charles Edward Spearman: Spearman's and
  62. 60. Edward Bradford Titchener: Structuralist
  63. 61. Robert Sessions Woodworth: Dynamic Psychologist
  64. 62. William McDougall: Goal Seeker
  65. 63. Margaret Floy Washburn: Simple Minds
  66. 64. Hans Berger: Alpha Rhythm
  67. 65. Edward Lee Thorndike: Puzzle Box
  68. 66. Carl Gustav Jung: Yin-Jung
  69. 67. Robert Mearns Yerkes: Psychobiologist
  70. 68. John Broadus Watson: Behaviorist
  71. 69. Max Wertheimer: Good Gestalt I
  72. 70. Arnold Lucius Gesell: Child Psychologist
  73. 71. Adelbert Ames: Ames' Ruminations
  74. 72. Elton George Mayo: The Hawthorne Effect
  75. 73. Clark Leonard Hull: Habit Strength
  76. 74. Hermann Rorschach: Inkblots
  77. 75. Kurt Koffka: Good Gestalt II
  78. 76. Edward Chace Tolman: Cognitive Mapper
  79. 77. Leta Stetter Hollingworth: New Woman
  80. 78. Frederic Charles Bartlett: Schema
  81. 79. Edwin Garrigues Boring: Historian of Psychology
  82. 80. Wolfgang Kühler: Good Gestalt III
  83. 81. Louis Leon Thurston: Psychometrician
  84. 82. Ruth Fulton Benedict: The Chrysanthemum and the Sword
  85. 83. Ronald Aylmer Fisher: Significant Figure
  86. 84. Karl Spencer Lashley: Lashley's Jumping Stand
  87. 85. Kurt Lewin: Good Gestalt IV
  88. 86. Wilder Graves Penfield: Cortical Cartographer
  89. 87. Jean Piaget: Genetic Epistemologist
  90. 88. Lev Semionovich Vygotsky: Vygotsky's Blocks
  91. 89. Gordon Willard Allport: Por-trait
  92. 90. Alexander Romanovich Luria: Neuropsychologist
  93. 91. Carl Ransom Rogers: Nondirective Therapist
  94. 92. Ergon Brunswik: Schematic Face
  95. 93. Burrhus Frederic Skinner: Skinner Boxed
  96. 94. James Jerome Gibson: Texture Gradients
  97. 95. Donald Olding Hebb: Face Sequences
  98. 96. Stanley Smith Stevens: Power Functions
  99. 97. Abraham Harold Maslow: Humanistic Psychologist
  100. 98. Roger Walcott Sperry: Split Brain
  101. 99. Kenneth John William Craik: Recognition of Identity
  102. 100. Ivo Kohler: Visual Inversion
  103. 101. Fergus William Campbell: Contrast Sensitivity
  104. 102. Donald Eric Broadbent: Channel Capacity
  105. 103. Allen Newell: Artificer of Intelligence
  106. 104. David Courtenay Marr: 2 ½-D Sketch
  107. Sources of Quotations
  108. Bibliography
  109. List of Psychologists
  110. Subject Index