Readings in Machine Translation


The field of machine translation (MT)—the automation of translation between human languages—has existed for more than fifty years. MT helped to usher in the field of computational linguistics and has influenced methods and applications in knowledge representation, information theory, and mathematical statistics.

This valuable resource offers the most historically significant English-language articles on MT. The book is organized in three sections. The historical section contains articles from MT's beginnings through the late 1960s. The second section, on theoretical and methodological issues, covers sublanguage and controlled input, the role of humans in machine-aided translation, the impact of certain linguistic approaches, the transfer versus interlingua question, and the representation of meaning and knowledge. The third section, on system design, covers knowledge-based, statistical, and example-based approaches to multilevel analysis and representation, as well as computational issues.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. I Historical

    Sergei Nirenburg

  3. 1. Translation

    Warren Weaver

  4. 2. Mechanical Translation

    A.D. Booth

  5. 3. The Mechanical Determination of Meaning

    Erwin Reifler

  6. 4. Translation

    Warren Weaver

  7. 5. Stochastic Methods of Mechanical Translation

    Gilbert W. King

  8. 6. The Present Status of Automatic Translation of Languages

    Yehoshua Bar-Hillel

  9. 7. A New Approach to the Mechanical Syntatic Analysis of Russian

    Ida Rhodes

  10. 8. A Preliminary Approach to Japanese-English Automatic Translation

    Susumu Kuno

  11. 9. On the Mechanization of Syntactic Analysis

    Sydney M. Lamb

  12. 10. Research Procedures in Machine Translation

    David G. Hays

  13. 11. ALPAC: The (In)Famous Report

    John Hutchins

  14. 12. Correlational Analysis and Mechanical Translation

    Silvio Ceccato

  15. 13. Automatic Translation: Some Theoretical Aspects and the Design of a Translation System

    O.S. Kulagina and I.A. Melcuk

  16. 14. Mechanical Pdgin Translation

    Margaret Masterman

  17. 15. English-Japanese Machine Translation

    S. Takahashi, H. Wada, R. Tadenuma, and S. Watanabe

  18. II Introduction

    Yorick Wilks

  19. 16. Automatic Translation and the Concept of Sublanguage

    J. Lehrberger

  20. 17. The Proper Place of Men and Machines in Language Translation

    Martin Kay

  21. 18. Machine Translation as an Expert Task

    Roderick L. Johnson and Peter Whitelock

  22. 19. Montague Grammar and Machine Translation

    Jan Landsbergen

  23. 20. Dialogue Translation vs. Text Translation-Interpretation Based Approach

    David G. Hays

  24. 21. Translation by Structural COrrespondences

    Ronald M. Kaplan, Klaus Netter, Jürgen Wedekind, and Annie Zaenen

  25. 22. Pros and Cons of the Pivot and Transfer Approaches in Multilingual Machine Translation

    David G. Hays

  26. 23. Treatment of Meaning in MT Systems

    Sergei Nirenburg and Kenneth Goodman

  27. 24. Where Am I Coming From: The Reversibility of Analysis and Generation in Natural Language Processing

    Yorick Wilks

  28. 25. The Place of Heuristics in the Fulcrum Approach to Machine Translation

    Paul L. Garvin

  29. 26. Computer Aided Translation: A Business Viewpoint

    John S. G. Elliston

  30. III System Design: Introduction

    Harold Somers

  31. 27. Three Levels of Linguistic Analysis in Machine Translation

    Michael Zarechnak

  32. 28. Automatic Translation-A Survey of Different Approaches

    B. Vauquois

  33. 29. Multi-level Translation Aids

    Alan K. Melby

  34. 30. EUROTRA: Computational Techniques

    Rod Johnson, Maghi King, and Louis des Tombe

  35. 31. A Framework of Mechanical Translation between Japanese and English by Analogy Principle

    Makoto Nagao

  36. 32. A Statistical Approach to Machine Translation

    Peter F. Brown, John Cocke, Stephen A. Della Pietra, Vincent J. Della Pietra, Frederick Jelinek, John D. Lafferty, Robert L. Mercer, and Paul S. Roossin

  37. 33. Automatic Speech Translation at ATR

    Tsuyoshi Morimoto and Akira Kurematsu

  38. 34. The Standford Machine Translation Project

    Yorick Wilks

  39. 35. The Textual Knowledge Bank: Design, Construction, Applications

    Victor Sadler

  40. 36. Machine Translation Without a Source Text

    Harold L. Somers, Jun-ichi Tsujii, and Danny Jones

  41. Source Notes
  42. Index