ISBN: 9780262232456 | 648 pp. | April 2006

Table of Contents
  Preface
I. STATUS EPILEPTICUS: HISTORY, DEFINITION, CLASSIFICATION, AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
  1. Historical Overview
Brian S. Meldrum
  2. Definition and Classification of Status Epilepticus
Claude G. Wasterlain and James W. Chen
  3. Incidence and Causes of Status Epilepticus
Robert J. DeLorenzo
  4. Prognosis after a First Episode of Status Epilepticus
Giancarlo Logroscino, Dale C. Hesdorffer, and W. Allen Hauser
  5. Epidemiology of Childhood Status Epilepticus
Shlomo Shinnar
II. STATUS EPILEPTICUS: CLINICAL PHENOMENOLOGY
  6. Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus
David M. Treiman
  7. Simple and Complex Partial Status Epilepticus
Pierre Thomas, Benjamin Zifkin, and Frederick Andermann
  8. Absence Status
Pierre Thomas, Benjamin Zifkin, and Frederick Andermann
  9. The Two Faces of Electrographic Status Epilepticus: The Walking Wounded and the Ictally Comatose
Denson G. Fujikawa
  10. Status Epilepticus in Infancy and Childhood
Joyce Y. Wu, Susan Koh, and Raman Sankar
  11. Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus in Children: With Special Reference to Electrical Status Epilepticus During Slow-Wave Sleep Syndrome (ESES Syndrome)
Shunsuke Ohtahara, Yasuko Yamatogi, Katsuhiro Kobayashi, and Naohiro Nishibayashi
  12. Status Epilepticus in the Neonate
Eli M. Mizrahi
III. STATUS EPILEPTICUS: BIOLOGICAL MARKERS
  13. Physiologic Responses to Status Epilepticus
Roger P. Simon
  14. Clinical Neuropathology in Convulsive Status Epilepticus
Heinz-Joachim Meencke and Gerhard Veith
  15. Neuron-Specific Enolase in Status Epilepticus
Christopher M. DeGiorgio, Adrian L. Rabinowicz, Jorge Correale, Christi Norton Heck, Peggy S. Gott, and Steven Schreiber
  16. Brain Imaging in Status Epilepticus
Thomas R. Henry
IV. BASIC MECHANISMS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  17. Self-Sustaining Status Epilepticus
Andrey M. Mazarati, Hantao Liu, David E. Naylor, Lucie Suchomelová, Kerry W. Thompson, Anne Pereira de Vasconselos, Raman Sankar, Astrid Nehlig, and Claude G. Wasterlain
  18. Pathophysiology of Seizure Circuitry in Status Epilepticus
Dan C. McIntyre, Mary Ellen Kelly, and William A. Staines
  19. Neuroanatomy of Status Epilepticus
Adrian Handforth
  20. Role of GABAA Receptors in Status Epilepticus
Robert L. Macdonald and Jaideep Kapur
  21. Physiologic Mechanisms of Inhibition and Status Epilepticus
Igor Spigelman
  22. Glutamate and Glutamate Receptors in Status Epilepticus
Astrid G. Chapman and Brian S. Meldrum
  23. Metabotropic Receptors in Status Epilepticus
Brian S. Meldrum
  24. The Role of Adenosine in Status Epilepticus
Deborah Young and Michael Dragunow
V. BASIC MECHANISMS: BRAIN DAMAGE
  25. Excitotoxicity in Status Epilepticus
Luiz E. A. M. Mello, Luciene Covolan, Clement Hamani, and Ricardo Luis Smith
  26. Seizure-Induced Damage in the Immature Brain: Overcoming the Burden of Proof
Kerry W. Thompson and Raman Sankar
  27. Metabolic and Circulatory Adaptations to Status Epilepticus in the Immature Brain
Astrid Nehlig and Anne Pereira de Vasconcelos
  28. Excitotoxicity and Seizures in the Immature Brain
Pavel Mareš
  29. Age-Specific Mechanisms of Status Epilepticus
Jana Velíšková, Rina Wu, and Solomon L. Moshé
  30. Developmental Differences in Seizure Susceptibility and Hippocampal Vulnerability: Molecular Correlates
Linda K. Friedman and Ellen F. Sperber
  31. Seizures and Neurotrophic Factor Expression
Harley I. Kornblum and Christine M. Gall
  32. Behavioral Consequences of Status Epilepticus in the Immature Brain
Gregory L. Holmes, Roustem Khazipov, Zhao Liu, Matthew R. Sarkisian, and Carl E. Stafstrom
VI. BASIC MECHANISMS: EPILEPTOGENESIS
  33. Late Consequences of Status Epilepticus
João Pereira Leite, Alexandre Valotta da Silva, and Esper A. Cavalheiro
  34. Epileptogenic Effects of Status Epilepticus
Yukiyoshi Shirasaka, Lucie Suchomelová, Andrey M. Mazarati, and Claude G. Wasterlain
  35. Hippocampal Reactive Synaptogenesis from Status Epilepticus
Gary W. Mathern
VII. THERAPEUTIC PRINCIPLES
  36. Neuroprotective Strategies in Status Epilepticus
Denson G. Fujikawa
  37. Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus: Principles of Treatment
Edward Faught and Christopher M. DeGiorgio
  38. Therapeutic Attitudes and Therapeutic Algorithms
Claude G. Wasterlain
  39. Approach to the Management of Neonatal Status Epilepticus
Hoda Z. Abdel-Hamid and Michael J. Painter
  40. Management of Status Epilepticus in Infants and Children
Philippe Evrard, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Isabelle Husson, Pierre Gressens, and Raman Sankar
VIII. PHARMACOTHERAPY
  41. Benzodiazepines for Initial Treatment of Status Epilepticus
Brian K. Alldredge
  42. Phenytoin in the Treatment of Status Epilepticus
Ilo E. Leppik
  43. Phenytoin and Fosphenytoin
R. Eugene Ramsay and Flavia M. Pryor
  44. Phenobarbital in the Treatment of Status Epilepticus
Edward Faught
  45. Valproate
Sunita Dergalust, Roi Ann Wallis, and Kimberly L. Panizzon
  46. Other Pharmacologic Therapy for Refractory Status Epilepticus
Alan G. Stein and Robert S. Fisher
IX. THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT
  47. Approaches to Treating Status Epilepticus Outside the Hospital
John W. Miller and Gail D. Anderson
  48. The Treatment of Status Epilepticus Patients in the Emergency Setting
Edward P. Sloan
  49. Critical Care of the Status Epilepticus Patient
Thomas P. Bleck
  50. The Impact of Status Epilepticus on Health Care Delivery Systems: Quality of Care and Access
Barbara G. Vickrey
  51. Status Epilepticus: The Future
Claude G. Wasterlain and David M. Treiman
  Contributors
  Index

 

Status Epilepticus, Mechanisms and Management

Overview

Interest in status epilepticus—the most extreme form of epilepsy, involving continuous seizures—has surged in the last 20 years. Since 1979 there have been over 4,000 publications on the subject, including more than 1,700 in the last five years. No other text provides such a comprehensive review of the recent advances in the field of status epilepticus.

The book focuses on the two areas in which progress has been most rapid: basic mechanisms and treatment. There is now a greater understanding of the mechanisms and complications of status epilepticus at the molecular level, which should eventually lead to improved therapy, and treatment strategies today have a greater sense of urgency because of the realization that neuronal apoptosis and necrosis can be triggered very quickly.

After an overview of history, classification, and epidemiology, the contributors consider clinical phenomenology, biological markers, pathophysiology, brain damage, epileptogenesis, therapeutic principles, pharmacology, and therapeutic management. Their contributions are equally divided between studies of basic mechanisms in animal models and clinical studies, so that the reader can turn easily from the reductionist experiment that isolates a small component of status to the complex clinical situation in which these principles can translate into therapeutic action. The goal is to provide a scientific rationale for clinical decisions while developing therapeutic attitudes that are firmly grounded in pathophysiology.