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6 x 9, illustrated
ISSN
0899-7667
E-ISSN
1530-888X
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Neural Computation

May 1, 2005, Vol. 17, No. 5, Pages 1109-1159
(doi: 10.1162/0899766053491878)
© 2005 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Universal Approximation Capability of Cascade Correlation for Structures
Article PDF (280.71 KB)
Abstract

Cascade correlation (CC) constitutes a training method for neural networks that determines the weights as well as the neural architecture during training. Various extensions of CC to structured data have been proposed: recurrent cascade correlation (RCC) for sequences, recursive cascade correlation (RecCC) for tree structures with limited fan-out, and contextual recursive cascade correlation (CRecCC) for rooted directed positional acyclic graphs (DPAGs) with limited fan-in and fan-out. We show that these models possess the universal approximation property in the following sense: given a probability measure P on the input set, every measurable function from sequences into a real vector space can be approximated by a sigmoidal RCC up to any desired degree of accuracy up to inputs of arbitrary small probability. Every measurable function from tree structures with limited fan-out into a real vector space can be approximated by a sigmoidal RecCC with multiplicative neurons up to any desired degree of accuracy up to inputs of arbitrary small probability. For sigmoidal CRecCC networks with multiplicative neurons, we show the universal approximation capability for functions on an important subset of all DPAGs with limited fan-in and fan-out for which a specific linear representation yields unique codes. We give one sufficient structural condition for the latter property, which can easily be tested: the enumeration of ingoing and outgoing edges should becom patible. This property can be fulfilled for every DPAG with fan-in and fan-out two via reenumeration of children and parents, and for larger fan-in and fan-out via an expansion of the fan-in and fan-out and reenumeration of children and parents. In addition, the result can be generalized to the case of input-output isomorphic transductions of structures. Thus, CRecCC networks consti-tute the first neural models for which the universal approximation ca-pability of functions involving fairly general acyclic graph structures is proved.