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Evolutionary Computation

Winter 1999, Vol. 7, No. 4, Pages 353-376
(doi: 10.1162/evco.1999.7.4.353)
© 1999 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
FDA -A Scalable Evolutionary Algorithm for the Optimization of Additively Decomposed Functions
Article PDF (1.18 MB)
Abstract

The Factorized Distribution Algorithm (FDA) is an evolutionary algorithm which combines mutation and recombination by using a distribution. The distribution is estimated from a set of selected points. In general, a discrete distribution defined for n binary variables has 2n parameters. Therefore it is too expensive to compute. For additively decomposed discrete functions (ADFs) there exist algorithms which factor the distribution into conditional and marginal distributions. This factorization is used by FDA. The scaling of FDA is investigated theoretically and numerically. The scaling depends on the ADF structure and the specific assignment of function values. Difficult functions on a chain or a tree structure are solved in about O(nn) operations. More standard genetic algorithms are not able to optimize these functions. FDA is not restricted to exact factorizations. It also works for approximate factorizations as is shown for a circle and a grid structure. By using results from Bayes networks, FDA is extended to LFDA. LFDA computes an approximate factorization using only the data, not the ADF structure. The scaling of LFDA is compared to the scaling of FDA.