Neurons are often modeled by dynamical systems—parameterized systems of differential equations. A typical behavioral pattern of neurons is periodic spiking; this corresponds to the presence of stable limit cycles in the dynamical systems model. The phase resetting and phase response curves (PRCs) describe the reaction of the spiking neuron to an input pulse at each point of the cycle. We develop a new method for computing these curves as a by-product of the solution of the boundary value problem for the stable limit cycle. The method is mathematically equivalent to the adjoint method, but our implementation is computationally much faster and more robust than any existing method. In fact, it can compute PRCs even where the limit cycle can hardly be found by time integration, for example, because it is close to another stable limit cycle. In addition, we obtain the discretized phase response curve in a form that is ideally suited for most applications. We present several examples and provide the implementation in a freely available Matlab code.