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Neural Computation

July 2018, Vol. 30, No. 7, Pages 1930-1960
(doi: 10.1162/neco_a_01092)
© 2018 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Bias Reduction and Metric Learning for Nearest-Neighbor Estimation of Kullback-Leibler Divergence
Article PDF (1.35 MB)
Nearest-neighbor estimators for the Kullback-Leiber (KL) divergence that are asymptotically unbiased have recently been proposed and demonstrated in a number of applications. However, with a small number of samples, nonparametric methods typically suffer from large estimation bias due to the nonlocality of information derived from nearest-neighbor statistics. In this letter, we show that this estimation bias can be mitigated by modifying the metric function, and we propose a novel method for learning a locally optimal Mahalanobis distance function from parametric generative models of the underlying density distributions. Using both simulations and experiments on a variety of data sets, we demonstrate that this interplay between approximate generative models and nonparametric techniques can significantly improve the accuracy of nearest-neighbor-based estimation of the KL divergence.