Monthly
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6 x 9, illustrated
ISSN
0899-7667
E-ISSN
1530-888X
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2.21

Neural Computation

September 2019, Vol. 31, No. 9, Pages 1751-1788
(doi: 10.1162/neco_a_01196)
© 2019 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Decoding Hidden Cognitive States From Behavior and Physiology Using a Bayesian Approach
Article PDF (1.22 MB)
Abstract
Cognitive processes, such as learning and cognitive flexibility, are both difficult to measure and to sample continuously using objective tools because cognitive processes arise from distributed, high-dimensional neural activity. For both research and clinical applications, that dimensionality must be reduced. To reduce dimensionality and measure underlying cognitive processes, we propose a modeling framework in which a cognitive process is defined as a low-dimensional dynamical latent variable—called a cognitive state, which links high-dimensional neural recordings and multidimensional behavioral readouts. This framework allows us to decompose the hard problem of modeling the relationship between neural and behavioral data into separable encoding-decoding approaches. We first use a state-space modeling framework, the behavioral decoder, to articulate the relationship between an objective behavioral readout (e.g., response times) and cognitive state. The second step, the neural encoder, involves using a generalized linear model (GLM) to identify the relationship between the cognitive state and neural signals, such as local field potential (LFP). We then use the neural encoder model and a Bayesian filter to estimate cognitive state using neural data (LFP power) to generate the neural decoder. We provide goodness-of-fit analysis and model selection criteria in support of the encoding-decoding result. We apply this framework to estimate an underlying cognitive state from neural data in human participants (N=8) performing a cognitive conflict task. We successfully estimated the cognitive state within the 95% confidence intervals of that estimated using behavior readout for an average of 90% of task trials across participants. In contrast to previous encoder-decoder models, our proposed modeling framework incorporates LFP spectral power to encode and decode a cognitive state. The framework allowed us to capture the temporal evolution of the underlying cognitive processes, which could be key to the development of closed-loop experiments and treatments.