Quarterly (winter, spring, summer, fall)
128 pp. per issue
7 x 10, illustrated
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Artificial Life


Artificial Life is the official journal of the International Society for Artificial Life (ISAL). Each issue features international research that spans the hierarchy of biological organization, including studies of the origin of life, self-assembly, growth and development, evolutionary and ecological dynamics, animal and robot behavior, social organization, and cultural evolution.

Table of Contents

Vol. 1, Issue 3 - Spring 1994


Editor's Column
pp. iii-iii
Abstract | PDF (89.34 KB)
Computer Viruses as Artificial Life
pp. 249-265
Abstract | PDF (3.32 MB)
Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Life
pp. 267-289
Abstract | PDF (3.06 MB)
Artificial Life as Philosophy
pp. 291-292
Abstract | PDF (190.85 KB)
Levels of Functional Equivalence in Reverse Bioengineering
pp. 293-301
Abstract | PDF (1.18 MB)
Why Do We Need Artificial Life?
pp. 303-325
Abstract | PDF (8.47 MB)