Quarterly (winter, spring, summer, fall)
128 pp. per issue
7 x 10, illustrated
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Artificial Life


Artificial Life is the official journal of the International Society for Artificial Life (ISAL). Each issue features international research that spans the hierarchy of biological organization, including studies of the origin of life, self-assembly, growth and development, evolutionary and ecological dynamics, animal and robot behavior, social organization, and cultural evolution.

Table of Contents

Vol. 2, Issue 3 - Spring 1995


Artificial Symbiogenesis
pp. 269-292
Abstract | PDF (4.34 MB)
Evolution of Cooperation, Differentiation, Complexity, and Diversity in an Iterated Three-Person Game
pp. 293-304
Abstract | PDF (1.21 MB)
Active Mutation in Self-Reproducing Networks of Machines and Tapes
pp. 305-318
Abstract | PDF (1.37 MB)
A Self-Organizing Spatial Vocabulary
pp. 319-332
Abstract | PDF (1.16 MB)
Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity.
pp. 333-335
Abstract | PDF (391.79 KB)