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Feb 1999
ISBN 0262720310
424 pp.
23 illus.
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Why So Slow?
Virginia Valian

"Why So Slow? is a breakthrough in the discourse on gender and has great potential to move the women's movement to a new, more productive phase."
-- Publisher's Weekly (starred review)

Why do so few women occupy positions of power and prestige? Virginia Valian uses concepts and data from psychology, sociology, economics, and biology to explain the disparity in the professional advancement of men and women. According to Valian, men and women alike have implicit hypotheses about gender differences -- gender schemas -- that create small sex differences in characteristics, behaviors, perceptions, and evaluations of men and women. Those small imbalances accumulate to advantage men and disadvantage women. The most important consequence of gender schemas for professional life is that men tend to be overrated and women underrated.

Valian's goal is to make the invisible factors that retard women's progress visible, so that fair treatment of men and women will be possible. The book makes its case with experimental and observational data from laboratory and field studies of children and adults, and with statistical documentation on men and women in the professions. The many anecdotal examples throughout provide a lively counterpoint.

Table of Contents
 Preface
 Acknowledgments
 A Note on Method and Scope
1 Gender Schemas at Work
2 Gender Begins--and Continues--at Home
3 Learning About Gender
4 Biology and Behavior
5 Biology and Cognition
6 Schemas That Explain Behavior
7 Evaluating Women and Men
8 Effects on the Self
9 Interpreting Success and Failure
10 Women in the Professions
11 Women in Academia
12 Professional Performance and Human Values
13 Affirmative Action and the Law
14 Remedies
 Notes
 References
 Author Index
 Subject Index
 
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