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Evolutionary Computation

Winter 2000, Vol. 8, No. 4, Pages 419-442.
(doi: 10.1162/106365600568248)
© 2000 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Is Echo a Complex Adaptive System?
Article PDF (423.37 KB)
Abstract

We evaluate whether John Holland's Echo model exemplifies his theory of complex adaptive systems. After reviewing Holland's theory of complex adaptive systems and describing his Echo model, we describe and explain the characteristic evolutionary behavior observed in a series of Echo model runs. We conclude that Echo lacks the diversity of hierarchically organized aggregates that typify complex adaptive systems, and we explore possible explanations for this failure.